Pier is a vertical load bearing structural component similar to a column except that it is bonded into load bearing wall at the sides to form an integral part of the wall and extends to full height of the wall. The shorter the useful life (or recovery period) of any given property will result in a larger annual tax deduction to the taxpayer. Plinth Then Please Subscribe To Our Daily Newsletter. In a similar analogy for a building such components are called structural components, due to which the building takes its own loads and survive for its life. The main function of foundation is to transfer load of entire building to the underlying soil. This is the first structural unit to be constructed for any building construction. The roof forms the topmost component of a building structure. The structural components of roof decking in case of pitched roof is generally a truss, in case of curved roof it is a shell or dome and in case of flat roof it is a flat slab. Kitchen setup 3. Basic component of buildings 1. It is a cement-mortar layer lying between the substructure and the superstructure. Structural components are the primary load bearing components of a building, and each have their own structural properties which need to be considered. Walls provide an enclosure and protect against wind, sunshine, rain etc. The choice of the type of roof is made keeping in view the location of the building, weather conditions, funds available and functional and aesthetics requirement. The plinth height should be such that after proper levelling and grading of the ground of adjoining the building (for proper drainage) there is no possibility of the rain watering entering the ground floor. Weather Shades or chhajjas are generally combined with lintels of windows to protect them from the weather elements such as sun, rain, frost etc. This can be either constructed flat or sloped in the form of truss, shell, dome or flat slab based on th… The basic functional requirements of these structural components are discussed below. Shear walls are the vertical structural component which resist the horizontal forces i.e. A good foundation prevents settlement of the building. Most of the flats and high-rise buildings are built this way. The provision of foundation is made in such a manner that the soil below the foundation is not stressed beyond its safe allowable bearing capacity. However, a building includes the structure itself and nonstructural components (e.g., cladding, roofing, interior walls and ceilings, HVAC systems, electrical systems) permanently attached to and supported by the structure. The role of each structural component is … 1 Components Of A Building: 2 1. On this a damp proof course may be provided. Know the Difference Between Cement and Concrete. The structural system of a high-rise building is designed to cope with vertical gravity loads as well as lateral loads caused by wind or seismic activity. Every component has its own function. The structural component that supports the roof cover is called a roof deck. It is the place where the inhabitants perform their most activities. In a well-planned layout, the walls divide the space in such a manner so as to achieve maximum carpet area and minimum area of circulation. Beams and slabs form the horizontal members in a building. 16 Liked This Article? are termed as upper floors. Hence, the foundations need to be constructed on good/solid ground. A beam is a laterally loaded member, whose cross-sectional dimensions are small as compared to its length. This is known as a lintel, and is similar in character to beam. These can be made of wood or steel and are inclusive of the roof trusses, the joists, the I-beams and the flooring. Depth of slab is small as compared to its length and breadth. Superstructure: 4 1. Flooring can be done by a variety of materials like tiles, granites, marbles, concrete, etc. The structural components of the buildings are therefore discussed in view of the above background. The structural component also included non-structural components such as partitions and ceilings. Walls: 8 5. A good foundation must remain in position without sliding, bending, overturning or failing in any other way. Foundation: 5 2. Sorry, you do not have permission to ask a question, You must login to ask question. It is uppermost component of a building and its main function is to cover the space below and protect it from rain, snow, sun, wind etc. It is also important to study the nature, strength and likely behavior of soils under loads along with the knowledge of materials for foundations and superstructure. These structures support the weight of the wall coming over the opening. wind, earthquake acting on a building structure. Ltd. The division of floor space varies depending on the functions required to be performed in the building. VIP members get additional benefits. component and a nonbuilding structure is the basis for design and construction. Roofs can be either flat or sloped based on the location and weather conditions of the area. Floors are flat supporting structural components of a building. Read More: 21 Types of Beams in Construction. From that point of view a chair should have sufficient strong thick legs and firm support and so on. Sink and toilet facilities, sprinkler systems, fire escapes, elevators and escalators do not qualify. Such as: 1. sheets, etc. Most Popular Types of Flooring Materials for Your House, Difference Between Concrete Beam & Column, roof basically consists of two components, Basic Information of Roof & Its Functional Requirements, 7 Different Varieties of Steps Used for Construction of Staircases, Types of Lintels | Their Uses in House Construction, To protect the foundation courses from atmospheric influences and, and. With the advancement of the technology different geometrical configurations like framed structure, The inspector may notice some larger cracks in the foundation or perhaps it appears to be bowing out in an area. Such components are. Wall Tiles and Floor Tiles: What is the Difference? On Dec. 12, 1946, in New York City, a 65-foot brick wall of a burning vacant building collapsed against an adjoining smaller tenement and crushed the entire rear, killing 37 people. Foundation. Non-structural elements are therefore required to accommodate earthquake actions. Painting walls 4. Furnishing wooded doors & woodwork 5. Living Room & Its Furniture For Your Home! Shear wall must provide lateral shear strength to the building to resist the horizontal earthquake loads, wind loads and transfer these loads to the foundation. The structural components of a building’s exterior walls include the vertical studs, top and bottom plates, and window and door sills and headers. The foundation is the most critical structural component of any structure and many failures are probably due to faulty foundations rather than any other cause. Sanjib Sengupta September 2016 2. For a single storey building, the top slab forms the roof. He leads SDCPL, a leading design consultancy firm having prominent national presence. Login to The Constructor to ask questions, answer people’s questions, write articles & connect with other people. A roof can be either flat, curved or pitched in shape. Shear wall can also be defined as a wall which are reinforced and made of braced panels to carry lateral forces. Double Flight Staircase!!! Roof is the exterior and the uppermost part of any building structure. – Know More! Metal buildings are secured onto a poured concrete foundation. 2. Floors: Floors are the important component of a building. A foundation is necessary to evenly distribute the entire building load on the soil in such a manner that no damaging settlements take place. Read More: Substructure and Superstructure in Building Construction. In many places in the masonry, we use arches and lintels. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email. Doors, Windows, and Ventilation: 11 8. Parapets are short walls extended above the roof slab. Roof: 13 10. Each of these structural components are essential part of a building and requires due consideration in design and construction for their functional and structural performance. A floor provided for accommodation below the natural ground level is termed as basement floor. Any object or a building in order to survive its designed life and serve the function for which it is designed has to bear its own loads and loads applied or loads coming over it. Ravin Desai is Co-Founder of gharpedia.com and Director of SDCPL. The level of the surrounding ground is known as formation level or simply ground level and the level of the ground floor of the building is known as a plinth level. Sthapati Designers & Consultants Pvt. Thus, those components of any object which take the load and make survive the object are called the structural components of that object. Please enter your email address. They are incorporated into the overall building structural system by a building designer.Examples are wood or steel roof trusses, floor trusses, floor panels, I-joists, or engineered beams and headers. Sub-Structure: 3 2. The actual frame of the door or window is not strong enough to support the weight of the wall above the opening and a separate structural component has, therefore, to be introduced. A slab is usually several inches thick and supported by beams, columns, walls, or the ground. The ceiling or roof of the structure is a slab. Walls are vertical elements which support the roof. A building consists of following basic components. 1. The space occupied by a stair is called as the stairway. In case of load bearing walls, the foundation could be in the form of spread footings. In case of a multi-storey building, the beam transfers the load coming from the floor above the slab which is in turn transferred to the columns. There are different types of stairs like a wooden stair, R.C.C stair etc. It covers the top face of the building. Depending upon the type of soil existing at site, its safe bearing capacity and the type of building which is required to constructed, a structure may need shallow or deep foundations. When bricks are used as building units it is known as brick masonry and when stones are used as building units it is termed as stone masonry. In residential buildings, lintels can be either constructed from concrete or from bricks. types of buildings, structures, and nonstructural components. All Rights Reserved. (i) Providing suitable slopes on the roof top for draining of rain water. The costs required for the structural components of a building need to be estimated by considering the earthquake potential [41–43]. Structural component means any part of the frame- work of a building or other structure. Which Load Combinations are to be Considered While Structural Designing of a House? Use below filters for find specific topics, You can use below filter for finding the nearby professionals. Architectural columns are constructed to improve the building’s aesthetics while a structural column takes the load coming from the slab above and transfers safely to the foundation. The Rise of Homesteading and the Role of an Architect in It, Best Location of Stairs in House | Inside or Outside. Non-structural components are parapet walls, door and windows, furnishings fixtures, partitions or partition walls, tiles, paint etc. In case of flat roofs, the roof covering is termed as terracing, which could comprise of a layer of varying thickness of material like lime, concrete, mud phuska etc. Cutting Electrical Chases in Brick Wall | Guidelines to Keep in Mind! He is the core member of Editorial team at GharPedia. Super Structure • The superstructure is that part of the building which is above the ground and which serves the purpose of building’s intended use. In a similar analogy for a building such components are called structural components, due to which the building takes its own loads and survive for its life. A column may be defined as vertical load bearing member the width of which is neither less than its thickness nor more than four times its thickness. Structural system, in building construction, the particular method of assembling and constructing structural elements of a building so that they support and transmit applied loads safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses in the members.Basic types of systems include bearing-wall, post-and-lintel, frame, membrane, and suspension. Plinth: 6 3. Foundation is the lowest part of a structure below the ground level which is in direct contact with the ground and transfers all the dead, live load and other loads to the soil on which the structure rests. Features and Benefits, Waffle Slab Foundation — Features and Construction Details, Mezzanine Floor for Buildings: Important Features and Types, Embodied Carbon in Construction: High Time to Reduce it. Walls are constructed by use of building units like bricks, stones, concrete blocks (hollow or solid) etc. 12 Basic Components of a Building Structure, Substructure and Superstructure in Building Construction, What is Cross Wall Construction? Super Structure: The part of building that is above ground level. Nonstructural components are typically constructed to function for architectural, mech-anical or electrical purposes. A roof deck and roof cover form the two main parts of a roof structure. According to another classification, the part of the building above ground is called the superstmcture, while the part below ground (including foundations, basemen!, and other underground structures) is called the substructure. Pier also strengthens the wall to resist pressure without buckling. It can be made from stones, bricks, concrete blocks, etc. Building Services: 15 Also Read – How To Select Site For Building Construction. Parapets are installed for flat roofs. Introduction to 3D Printed Concrete House! The building units are bonded together with mortar in horizontal and vertical joints and construction is termed as masonry. Plastering and pointing 2. The basic components of a building structure are foundations, floors, walls, beams, columns, roofs, staircase, etc. Stairs: 12 9. 16. The openings are provided in the wall of a building to accommodate the doors or windows. They are normally provided as partition walls. These elements serve the purpose of supporting, enclosing and … It acts as a safety wall for people using the roof. With the advancement of the technology different geometrical configurations like framed structure, load bearing structure, shed structure etc., are popularly used to withstand the loads of different buildings. The Foundation is a structural unit that uniformly distributes the load from the superstructure to the underlying soil. A roof basically consists of two components namely. To achieve this, the designer must make sure that the superstructure, foundation and soil act together. Beams are structural components on which the slabs rest. 2. The walls are constructed over the DPC. The foundations of any structure should be laid much below the surface of the ground, for these four purposes. Columns are vertical members constructed above the ground level. Positioning & maintenance of lifts & stairs works Building Components Available From Pascal Steel Pascal Steel offers a wide array of building components, parts and accessories for pre-engineered & prefab 760-944-7767 Facebook BASIC COMPONENT OF BUILDINGS By: Ar. footing and plinth of a building are a part of a sub-structure. The structure is designed not only to meet the requirements of the building safety aspect but also mandatory to consider the economic aspects. The roof covering or roofing which is provided over pitched roof could be in the form of tiles, slates, A.C. sheets, G.I. Sub Structure: The part of building that is constructed below ground level. Structural principles - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. The structure is responsible for maintaining the shape and form under the influence of subjected forces. WHAT IS BUILDING Any structure for whatsoever purpose and of whatsoever materials constructed and every part thereof whether used as human habitation or not and includes foundation, plinth, walls, floors, roofs, chimneys, plumbing and building services, fixed … Basic Components of a Building. Structural building components are those elements that make up the basic skeleton of your home. There are two basic components of a building. Column: 9 6. 2. He is also co-founder of 1mnt.in, the first-in-Industry software for contractors’ billing. The terracing serves dual purpose i.e. Become VIP Member. Floors: 10 7. All Rights Reserved. In view of the above the walls, columns etc., are structural components of the building. These loads are permanent, fixed and relatively easy to calculate. The primary function of nonbuilding structures is to maintain structural Nonbuilding structure not similar to a building. Loads are usually divided into the following categories: Dead loads, which result from the mass of all the elements of the building, including footings, foundation, walls, suspended floors, frame and roof. We know that brick walls, concrete slabs (the structural part) and roof frames are most certainly structural building components. Copyright 2020 GharPedia. The concluding appearance of a building depends on such works. The basic purpose of a floor is to provide a firm and dry platform for people and for other items like furniture, stores, equipment etc. This part of building safely transfers the load of building to the underlying soil.Therefore, footing should be of such strength that it … Beams and slabs are constructed by reinforced cement concrete (R.C.C). Floor is generally referred to by its location. A floor immediately above the ground is termed as a ground floors and all the other floors such as 1st floor, 2nd floor etc. DPC is a layer of waterproofing material applied on the basement level to prevent the rise of surface water into the walls. Basic Components of a Building 1. The ground floor is prepared by filling brick bats, waste stones, gravel and well compacted with not less than 100 mm sand layer on its top. Structural components means such separately attached parts of a building, as walls and built-in partitions, permanent paneling and tiling, doors, stairways, the entire central heating, plumbing, electrical, and air conditioning systems. provided over the sub-floor as a finishing layer for aesthetics. To perform this function effectively, a window sill should be projected slightly below the inner face of the wall, and on the under side of the projection a small groove should be provided. Single Flight Staircase vs. These elements serve the purpose of supporting, enclosing and protecting the building structure. Within the context of the built environment, the term ‘structure’ refers to anything that is constructed or built from different interrelated parts with a fixed location on the ground. Structural Components. For framed structures, the foundation could be in the form of independent column footings, combined footing, rafts or piles. The floor is the surface laid on the plinth level. Sign Up to The Constructor to ask questions, answer questions, write articles, and connect with other people. The plinth is constructed above the ground level. A stair may be defined as a structure comprising of a number of steps connecting one floor to another. The basic purpose of a floor is to provide a firm and dry platform for people and for other items like furniture, stores, equipment etc. Building Finishes: 14 11. The sub-floor is the structural component of the floor which supports all the loads (dead and super-imposed) and flooring is the covering layer of desired specification (cement concrete, terrazzo, tiles etc.) A building element is any structural or non-structural component or assembly, incorporated into or associated with the operation of a building. Construction Safety Tips for Workers' Well-Being. The structural components are essential to keeping your home solid and intact. STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS. The structural system consists only of the members designed to carry the loads, and all other members are referred to as non-structural. 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When a home inspector finds a questionable structural component of the house they may suggest or require a structural engineer’s stamp of approval to verify that the structure is sound. Walls are provided to enclose or divide the floor space in desired pattern. They divide a building into different levels so that creating more accommodation on a given plot of land. The built covered area measured at the ground floor level is termed as plinth area. A non-load bearing wall on the other hand carries its own weight and is not designed to carry super-imposed load from the structure. Although structural components of buildings are generally excluded from the definition of “section 38 property” for purposes of the investment tax credit, the ----- has been specifically designed and engineered for Taxpayer’s commercial building. Buildings and structural components have substantially longer depreciable lives than tangible personal property. This happens frequently with foundations. All buildings have similar components such as foundation, plinth, walls, floors, doors, windows and roof. DPC: 7 4. He has a Master’s degree in Civil Engineering (MS-USA) and has diverse experience of 12 years in multiple disciplines. 6. VIP members get additional benefits. Openings are provided in the walls for ventilation and access to the building. Columns can be of two types: Architectural columns and structural columns. Oiling & painting grillwork & metal-work. Structural building components are specialized structural building products designed, engineered and manufactured under controlled conditions for a specific application. A steel structure is secured to the concrete foundation and columns at the front, sides, and back of the building are secured into the concrete to create structural support. A lean concrete of 1 : 4 : 8, 100 mm thick is laid. A Slab is used as a base as well as a ceiling/ roof to transfer the load of the structure to the beams/walls. Shear Walls provide great stiffness to building in the direction of their orientation, which reduces lateral sway of the building and thus reduces damage to structure during earthquake or cyclone. They give working/useful area for the occupants. In view of the above the walls, columns etc., are structural components of the building. Sub-Structure. Lost your password? This structure is a covering that is provided to protect the building from rain, snow, wind, sun and other adverse effects. Mentioned below are the 12 basic components a building structure. 4.1 Buildings Generally, a building can be defined as an enclosed structure intended for human occupancy. A sub-structure a base as well as a lintel, and give protection sun... Concrete blocks ( hollow or solid ) etc the Rise of surface water into the walls for Ventilation access. Building need to be constructed for any building structure, Substructure and superstructure in building,. Are most certainly structural building components are parapet walls, door and windows, etc, What is the laid. Articles & connect with other people windows, furnishings structural components of a building, partitions or partition walls, beams, columns roof. Component of a building engineered and manufactured under controlled conditions for a specific application throated to throw the rain off... Under controlled conditions for a single storey building, the first-in-Industry software for contractors ’ billing,,. Are called the structural component means any part of a structural components of a building enclose or divide the is... As well as a safety wall for people using the roof slab a wooden stair, R.C.C stair etc as. To meet the requirements of these structural components are the important component of a building that supports the slab... Wall for people using the roof cover is called as the stairway ’. Footing and plinth of a number of steps connecting one floor to another of. Of two types: architectural columns and structural columns furnishings fixtures, partitions or partition walls or... Lintels are constructed above the wall openings like doors, windows, and connect with other people vertical concentrated.! Discussed in view of the wall of a building with top and bottom surfaces parallel and near the loads and... Of slab is small as compared to its length foundations need to be considered While Designing. A pier is introduced to increase the stability of structure against overturning due to wind.... Contractors ’ billing and form under the influence of subjected forces of building that provided! Incorporated into or associated with the operation of a building to carry super-imposed load from superstructure! Stairs like a wooden stair, R.C.C stair etc, with top and bottom surfaces and... Questions, answer questions, answer people ’ s degree in Civil Engineering MS-USA... Therefore required to accommodate the doors or windows thick and supported by beams, columns etc. are... Form the horizontal forces i.e systems, fire escapes, elevators and escalators do not qualify to the! Any other way enclosed structure intended for human occupancy buildings, lintels can be defined as an structure. Elements serve the purpose of supporting, enclosing and protecting the building aspect. With mortar in horizontal and vertical joints and Construction is termed as basement floor the entire load... 8, 100 mm thick is laid view a chair should have strong... Of wood or steel and are inclusive of the flats and high-rise buildings are therefore discussed in view of area! As compared to its length and breadth, plinth, walls, tiles paint. Poured concrete foundation many places in the foundation could be in the building the... Or windows cracks in the form of independent column footings, combined footing rafts... Short walls extended above the roof trusses, the designer must make sure that the superstructure to the columns in! Topmost component of a building into different levels so that creating more accommodation on a given plot of land protect! Divide a building structure are the 12 basic components of the above the openings... Load or to carry vertical concentrated load perform their most activities to accommodate doors. By reinforced cement concrete provide an enclosure and protect against wind,,! From bricks of slab is small as compared to its length depending on the soil in a... As partitions and ceilings will create a new password via email distributes load! Buildings may also be constructed for any building Construction walls extended above the.! Component is … the concluding appearance of a building a foundation is necessary to evenly distribute the entire building the! Be done by a stair is a structural unit to be performed in the form of spread.! As the stairway potential [ 41–43 ] non-structural elements are therefore required to be considered are provided to protect building. Floors in a building structure load Combinations are to be bowing out in an area structural properties which need be... Partitions or partition walls, concrete, etc of Homesteading and the role of each structural component is. Face of the area human occupancy in multiple disciplines component and a nonbuilding structure not similar a. Could be in the foundation is a cement-mortar layer lying between the Substructure and in... In many places in the form of independent column footings, combined footing, rafts or piles and! Of two parts namely ( i ) sub floor ( ii ) acting! A damp proof course may be defined as a base as well as a lintel, and all members... Form of independent column footings, combined footing, rafts or piles good must! Risk of failure due to settlement of soil its own weight and similar... An Architect in it, Best Location of stairs in House | Inside or Outside read:! Supporting structural components are typically constructed to function for architectural, mech-anical or electrical purposes top. The exterior and the uppermost part of the structure of foundation is to! Find specific topics, you can use below filters for find specific,! Component that supports the roof forms the roof panels to carry super-imposed load the... And windows, furnishings fixtures, partitions or partition walls, the smaller building can experience a secondary.. Roof top for draining of rain water roof can be of two parts (... ( MS-USA ) and has diverse experience of 12 years in multiple disciplines Wiki - Share Construction... Blocks, etc and protecting the building of soil high-rise buildings are built way. Economic aspects nonbuilding structures is to transfer load of the members designed to carry additional or... Are reinforced and made of braced panels to carry vertical concentrated load, furnishings fixtures, partitions partition! Stair may be provided Substructure and superstructure in building Construction ground has to be performed in the for... Is introduced to increase the stiffness of the area ground level a lintel, and nonstructural components are typically to. Building can be made from stones, bricks, stones, bricks, concrete blocks hollow! Protecting the building from rain, snow, wind, structural components of a building, rain, snow,,! The concluding appearance of a building team at GharPedia finishing layer for Providing thermal comfort to the to. Small as compared to its length and breadth, paint etc a framed structure with columns and structural.... For a specific application and a nonbuilding structure not similar to a building are a part of units... Of your home solid and intact accommodate the structural components of a building or windows can be either flat or based! Designing buildings Wiki - Share your Construction industry knowledge floor tiles: What is the member! Not only to meet the requirements of the building structure part of the structure non-structural component assembly! Additional load or to carry super-imposed load from the superstructure, foundation soil... As compared to its length and breadth of beams in Construction component also included components! Deck and roof cover is called a roof deck Keep in Mind the top slab forms roof! Damaging settlements take place, you can use below filter for finding the nearby professionals point view. Component, with top and bottom surfaces parallel and near all other members are referred to non-structural... Over the opening basically consists of two types: architectural columns and footings and then Walled are those elements make... Sunshine, rain etc cover is called as the stairway concrete foundation provided for accommodation below surface! Of structure against overturning due to settlement of soil viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit `` structural components typically! Constructed as a finishing layer for Providing thermal comfort to the beams/walls own structural properties which need be... With top and bottom surfaces parallel and near the weight of the wall coming over the.. Or non-structural component or assembly, incorporated into or associated with the operation of a building plot of.! Be done by a stair may be defined as a finishing layer for aesthetics walls, and!, whose cross-sectional dimensions are small as compared to its length weathered and throated to the!, Best Location of stairs like a wooden stair, R.C.C stair etc uppermost part of building that provided... Sprinkler systems, fire escapes, elevators and escalators do not have permission to question. Ground level, elevators and escalators do not have permission to ask a question you... Joints and Construction is termed as plinth area from concrete or from bricks vertical members above! Floors, walls, door and windows, and Ventilation: 11.. Experience a secondary collapse provided to enclose or divide the floor structural components of a building the basis design... Roof of the structure is a structural component that is used to create flat horizontal surfaces such as partitions ceilings! Thick is laid, or the ground, for these four purposes specific application wooden stair, etc is as! Degree in Civil Engineering ( MS-USA ) and roof and nonstructural components be properly compacted and leveled view the. And supported by beams, columns etc., are structural components are the primary bearing! Used to create flat horizontal surfaces such as partitions and ceilings that distributes... To as non-structural bricks, concrete blocks, etc structures support the weight of the building structure for ’... It can be either flat or sloped based on the plinth level are a part the..., furnishings fixtures, partitions or partition walls, columns etc., are structural components a., stair, R.C.C stair etc roof to transfer load of the to.
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